Gang, S. S., Grover, M., Reddy, K. C., Raman, D., Chang, Y. T., Ekiert, D. C., Barkoulas, M., & Troemel, E. R. (2022). A pals-25 gain-of-function allele triggers systemic resistance against natural pathogens of C. elegans. PLoS genetics, 18(10), e1010314.

Rivera, D. E., Lažetić, V., Troemel, E. R., & Luallen, R. J. (2022). RNA Fluorescence in situ Hybridization (FISH) to Visualize Microbial Colonization and Infection in Caenorhabditis elegans Intestines. Journal of visualized experiments : JoVE, (185), 10.3791/63980.

Tecle, E., & Troemel, E. R. (2022). Insights from C. elegans into Microsporidia Biology and Host-Pathogen Relationships. Experientia supplementum (2012), 114, 115–136.


El Jarkass HT, Mok C, Schertzberg MR, Fraser AG, Troemel ER, Reinke AW (2022). An intestinally secreted host factor promotes microsporidia invasion of C. elegans. eLife.

Lažetić V, Wu F, Cohen LB, Reddy KC, Chang Y, Gang SS, Bhabha G, Troemel ER (2022). The transcription factor ZIP-1 promotes resistance to intracellular infection in Caenorhabditis elegans. Nature Communications.


Tecle E, Chhan CB, Franklin L, Underwood RS, Hanna-Rose W, Troemel ER (2021). The purine nucleoside phosphorylase pnp-1 regulates epithelial cell resistance to infection in C. elegans. PLoS Pathog 17(4): e1009350. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1009350

Lažetić V, Troemel ER. Conservation lost: host-pathogen battles drive diversification and expansion of gene families. FEBS J. 2021 Sep;288(18):5289-5299. doi: 10.1111/febs.15627.


Panek J, Gang SS, Reddy KC, Luallen RJ, Fulzele A, Bennett EJ, Troemel ER. A cullin-RING ubiquitin ligase promotes thermotolerance as part of the intracellular pathogen response in Caenorhabditis elegans. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2020 Apr 7;117(14):7950-7960. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1918417117

Sowa, J. N., Jiang, H., Somasundaram, L., Tecle, E., Xu, G., Wang, D., & Troemel, E. R. The Caenorhabditis elegans RIG-I Homolog DRH-1 Mediates the Intracellular Pathogen Response upon Viral Infection. Journal of virology, 94(2), e01173-19. doi: 10.1128/JVI.01173-19


Sfarcic I, Bui T, Daniels EC, Troemel ER. Nanoluciferase-Based Method for Detecting Gene Expression in Caenorhabditis elegans. Genetics. 2019 Oct 4. pii: genetics.302655.2019. doi: 10.1534/genetics.119.302655

Balla KM, Lažetić V, Troemel ER. Natural variation in the roles of C. elegans autophagy components during microsporidia infection. PloS One. 2019 Apr 23;14(4):e0216011. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0216011. eCollection 2019.

Reddy KC, Dror T, Underwood RS, Osman GA, Elder CR, Desjardins CA, Cuomo CA, Barkoulas M, Troemel ER. Antagonistic paralogs control a switch between growth and pathogen resistance in C. elegans. PLoS Pathog. 2019 Jan 14;15(1):e1007528. doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1007528. eCollection 2019 Jan


Kuo CJ, Hansen M, Troemel E. Autophagy and innate immunity: Insights from invertebrate model organisms. Autophagy. Epub 2018 Feb 17.


Reddy KC, Dror T, Sowa JN, Panek J, Chen K, Lim ES, Wang D, Troemel ER. An Intracellular Pathogen Response Pathway Promotes Proteostasis in C. elegans. Curr Biol. 2017 Nov 20;27(22):3544-3553.e5. doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2017.10.009. Epub 2017 Nov 2.

Reinke AW, Balla KM, Bennett EJ, Troemel ER. Identification of microsporidia host-exposed proteins reveals a repertoire of rapidly evolving proteins. Nat Commun. 2017 Jan 9;8:14023. doi: 10.1038/ncomms14023. PMID: 28067236; PMCID: PMC5423893.


Troemel ER. Host-Microsporidia Interactions in Caenorhabditis elegans, a Model Nematode Host. Microbiol Spectr. 2016 Oct;4(5). doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.FUNK-0003-2016. PMID: 27763260.

Balla KM, Luallen RJ, Bakowski MA, Troemel ER. Cell-to-cell spread of microsporidia causes Caenorhabditis elegans organs to form syncytia. Nature Microbiology 1, (2016) doi:10.1038/nmicrobiol.2016.144

Luallen RJ, Reinke AW, Tong L, Botts MR, Félix MA, Troemel ER. Discovery of a Natural Microsporidian Pathogen with a Broad Tissue Tropism in Caenorhabditis elegans. PLoS Pathog. 2016 Jun 30;12(6):e1005724. doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1005724. eCollection 2016 Jun. PMID: 27362540 

Botts MR, Cohen LB, Probert CS, Wu F, Troemel ER. Microsporidia Intracellular Development Relies on Myc Interaction Network Transcription Factors in the Host. G3 (Bethesda). 2016 Jul 8. pii: g3.116.029983. doi: 10.1534/g3.116.029983. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 27402359

Reddy KC, Dunbar TL, Nargund AM, Haynes CM, Troemel ER. The C. elegans CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Protein Gamma Is Required for Surveillance Immunity. Cell Rep. 2016 Feb 10. pii: S2211-1247(16)30033-X. doi: 10.1016/j.celrep.2016.01.055. [Epub ahead of print] PMID:26876169


Troemel ER, Becnel JJ. Genome analysis and polar tube firing dynamics of mosquito-infecting microsporidia. Fungal
Genet Biol. 2015 Oct;83:41-44. doi: 10.1016/j.fgb.2015.08.007. Epub 2015 Aug 20. PMID: 26300319; PMCID: PMC4587305.

Szumowski SC, Estes KA, Popovich JJ, Botts MR, Sek G, Troemel ER. Small GTPases promote actin coat formation on microsporidian pathogens traversing the apical membrane of C. elegans intestinal cells. Cell Microbiol. 2015 Jul 6. doi: 10.1111/cmi.12481. [Epub ahead of print] PMID:26147591

Luallen RJ, Bakowski MA, Troemel ER. Characterization of Microsporidia-Induced Developmental Arrest and a Transmembrane Leucine-Rich Repeat Protein in Caenorhabditis elegans. PLoS One. 2015 Apr 13;10(4):e0124065. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0124065. eCollection 2015. 

Szumowski SC, Troemel ER. Microsporidia-host interactions. Curr Opin Microbiol. 2015 Aug;26:10-6. doi: 10.1016/j.mib.2015.03.006. Epub 2015 Apr 4. PMID: 25847674; PMCID: PMC4577307.

Balla KM, Andersen EC, Kruglyak L, Troemel ER. A wild C. elegans strain has enhanced epithelial immunity to a natural microsporidian parasite. PLoS Pathogens. 2015 Feb 13;11(2):e1004583. doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1004583.


Cohen LB, Troemel ER. Microbial pathogenesis and host defense in the nematode C. elegans. Curr Opin Microbiol. 2015
Feb;23:94-101. doi: 10.1016/j.mib.2014.11.009. Epub 2014 Nov 27. PMID: 25461579; PMCID: PMC4324121

Bakowski MA, Priest M, Young S, Cuomo CA, Troemel ER. Genome Sequence of the Microsporidian Species Nematocida sp1 Strain ERTm6 (ATCC PRA-372). Genome Announc. 2014 Sep 18;2(5). pii: e00905-14. doi: 10.1128/genomeA.00905-14.

Bakowski MA, Desjardins CA, Smelkinson MG, Dunbar TA, Lopez-Moyado IF, Rifkin SA, Cuomo CA, Troemel ER. Ubiquitin-Mediated Response to Microsporidia and Virus Infection in C. elegans. PLoS Pathog. 2014 Jun 19;10(6):e1004200. doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1004200.

Szumowski SC, Botts MR, Popovich JJ, Smelkinson MG, Troemel ER. The small GTPase RAB-11 directs polarized exocytosis of the intracellular pathogen N. parisii for fecal-oral transmission from C. elegans. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014 Jun 3;111(22):8215-20. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1400696111. Epub 2014 May 19.


Balla KM, Troemel ER. Caenorhabditis elegans as a model for intracellular pathogen infection. Cell Microbiol. 2013
Aug;15(8):1313-22. doi: 10.1111/cmi.12152. Epub 2013 May 13. PMID: 23617769; PMCID: PMC3894601.


Troemel E. Host detection of pathogen-induced translational inhibition: a new pathogen-specific branch of the innate immune system?. Future Microbiol. 2012;7(10):1133-1136. doi:10.2217/fmb.12.91

Szumowski SC, Estes KA, Troemel ER. Preparing a discreet escape: Microsporidia reorganize host cytoskeleton prior to non-lytic exit from C. elegans intestinal cells. Worm, 2012 Oct 1;1(4):207-11. doi: 10.4161/worm.20501.

Cuomo CA*, Desjardins CA*, Bakowski MA*, Goldberg J, Ma AT, Becnel JJ, Didier ES, Fan L, Heiman DI, Levin JZ, Young S, Zeng Q, Troemel ER. Microsporidian genome analysis reveals evolutionary strategies for obligate intracellular growth. Genome Res. gr.142802.112 Published in Advance July 18, 2012, doi:10.1101/gr.142802.112.
† Corresponding authors.
*Equivalent contributions

Dunbar TL*, Yan Z*, Balla KM, Smelkinson, MG, Troemel ER. C. elegans Detects Pathogen-Induced Translational Inhibition to Activate Immune Signaling. Cell Host & Microbe 2012 April 19; 11(4):375-386
*Equivalent contributions


Estes KA, Szumowski SC and Troemel ER. Non-Lytic, Actin-Based Exit of Intracellular Parasites from C. elegans Intestinal Cells. PLoS Pathogens 2011 Sept 15;7:e1002227
Selected by Faculty of 1000.

Troemel ER. New models of microsporidiosis: infections in Zebrafish, C. elegans, and honey bee. PLoS Pathog. 2011 Feb;7(2):e1001243. doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1001243. Epub 2011 Feb 17. PMID: 21379567; PMCID: PMC3040677.


Irazoqui JE, Troemel ER, Feinbaum RL, Luhachack LG, Cezairliyan BO, Ausubel FM. Distinct pathogenesis and host responses during infection of C. elegans by P. aeruginosa and S. aureus. PLoS Pathogens 2010 Jul 1;6:e1000982.

Estes KA, Dunbar TL, Powell JR, Ausubel FM, Troemel ER. bZIP transcription factor zip-2 mediates an early response to Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in Caenorhabditis elegans. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010 Feb 2;107(5):2153-8. Epub 2010 Jan 21.


Troemel ER†, Félix M-A, Barrière A, Whiteman NK, Ausubel FM. Microsporidia are natural intracellular parasites of the nematode C. elegans. PLoS Biol 2008 Dec 9; 6(12): e309.
† Corresponding author